The development and trend of automobile casting technol […]
The development and trend of automobile casting technology
Today, with the rapid development of science and technology, due to the special advantages of the casting forming process, there are currently no alternative manufacturing processes for some complex structural parts. The casting process is still the most economical and convenient metal forming process. With the integration of the global economy, at a time when international cooperation is getting closer and competition is becoming increasingly fierce, China's automobile foundry industry should give full play to its advantages in foundry resources and develop its own foundry industry.
1. Current Status of China's Foundry Industry
China is the world's largest producer of castings. According to data, the output value of my country's casting products accounts for about 1% of the national economy. In recent years, the import and export trade of castings has grown rapidly, and the output of castings has reached about 9%. There are more than 20,000 foundries in my country and 1.2 million employees in the foundry industry. The output of castings in the "Yangtze River Delta" area accounts for 1/3 of the country's total. This area is dominated by private enterprises. The development of the automobile and auto parts industry has strongly promoted the development of the casting industry. Wanfeng Auto is the largest aluminum alloy wheel company in Asia, with an annual output value of more than 1 billion yuan and an export value of US$6,000. Kunshan Fujihe Machinery Co., Ltd. produces castings for automobile engines and brake systems, with an annual output of 40,000 tons and sales revenue of 550 million yuan. Huadong Teksid is an advanced modern cylinder block casting manufacturer with an annual output of 10 million pieces
Car cylinder block casting capacity. Shanxi is a large province with foundry resources. It is rich in pig iron, coal, aluminum and magnesium, electricity, and labor resources, which gives Shanxi's foundry industry a unique advantage. It has 500 foundry enterprises, 80% of which are private enterprises. The annual output of Shanxi International, Hejin Shanlian and Shanxi Huaxiang reached 40,000 tons, 20,000 tons, and 120,000 tons respectively. Key automobile companies such as the "Three Northeast Provinces" FAW Group and Hafei Group have driven the growth of auto casting output. FAW Group Foundry Company has formed a production capacity of 400,000 tons of castings. Liaoning North Crankshaft Co., Ltd. will form a crankshaft production base with an annual output of 150,000 engines, 1 million crankshafts and an output value of 2 billion by the end of the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan". The "Pearl River Delta" die-casting industry is developed, with more than 700 die-casting enterprises, with an annual output of 200,000 tons. Dongfeng Nissan, Guangzhou Honda, Guangzhou Toyota and component companies have strongly driven the development of the die-casting industry. The output of die-casting parts for car cylinder blocks and cylinder heads has increased year by year.
2. Current Status of Foreign Foundry Industry
In recent years, the global foundry industry has continued to grow. In 2004, the output of castings increased by 8.4% over the previous year. China produced 22.42 million tons of castings, ranking first in the world, an increase of 23.6% over the previous year. The output and growth rate of the world's top ten casting production countries are shown in Table 1. It can be seen from Table 1 that in 2004, China's casting output accounted for about 1/4 of the global casting output. Brazil's casting output increased the fastest, reaching 25.8%. Countries with growth rates exceeding double digits include Brazil, China, Mexico, and India, all of which are developing countries. The growth rate of castings in developed countries is generally low. Since 2000, American casting production has retreated to the second place. The total output of American castings in 2004 was 12.31 million tons, of which gray iron parts accounted for 35%, ductile iron parts accounted for 33%, steel castings accounted for 8.4%, and aluminum alloy parts accounted for 16%. In terms of demand, the demand for ductile iron castings and aluminum castings is increasing. Imported castings accounted for 15% of total demand in 2003, and the price of imported castings was 20%-50% lower than that in the United States. In recent years, due to high environmental protection requirements for casting, high energy consumption, and expensive labor, the foundries of major American automobile companies producing ordinary automobile castings have closed one after another, gradually shifting the production of castings to developing countries such as China, India, Mexico, and Brazil. Japan’s foundry industry is sluggish, and its employees are declining. The total output of castings in Japan in 2004 was 6.39 million tons, of which gray iron parts accounted for 42%, ductile iron parts 30%, steel castings 4%, and aluminum alloy parts 21%. In terms of demand, the demand for ductile iron castings and aluminum castings is increasing. The Japanese foundry industry has done a lot of work in technological innovation, and has developed spherical low-expansion foundry sand, high-vibration cast iron materials, medium silicon heat-resistant ductile iron and other materials. Its vacuum die-casting castings can be welded and heat-treated, and semi-solid casting is used for automotive aluminum wheels, which improves the strength and elongation. Magnesium alloy die-casting has been further developed and replaced gravity casting, with improved performance and lower cost.
3. Development direction of automobile casting technology
Automobile technology is developing towards lightweight, digitization and environmental protection. According to relevant reports, for every 10% reduction in vehicle weight, fuel consumption can be reduced by 5.5%, fuel economy can be improved by 3%-5%, and emissions can be reduced by about 10%. There are two main ways to reduce the weight of castings. One is the use of non-ferrous alloy castings such as aluminum and magnesium. In 2003, the United States estimated that 2/3 of aluminum castings were used in automobiles, with each vehicle reaching 107 kg. The second is to reduce the wall thickness of castings, design multi-part composite castings, produce thin-walled high-strength composite castings, and reduce machining allowances to produce near-net-shape castings. With the rapid development of automobile technology, in order to shorten the production preparation period of castings and reduce the risk of new product development, rapid mold making technology, computer simulation simulation, three-dimensional modeling, and numerical control technology are required. Cleaner production and waste recycling are the development trends of the foundry industry, and reducing energy consumption is the theme of its sustainable development. my country's automobile foundry industry must take the road of high efficiency, energy saving, material saving, environmental protection and green casting, because the country and society require strict control of the large energy consumers and polluters of the automobile foundry industry, so as to improve the hot, dirty and tired labor in the foundry industry The labor environment of employees in intensive industries.